“I never teach my pupils, I only attempt to provide the conditions in which they can learn.” Albert Einstein
Alan Schoenfeld, Professor of Education and Mathematics at the University of California Berkeley, designed Teaching for Robust Understanding (TRU) of Mathematics to teach math to elementary school students. The TRU framework can also be used to teach other elementary school disciplines.
When I read about TRU and its five dimensions, I was struck by its similarity to participatory, learner-centered curriculum design and delivery for adults.
Central to TRU are five dimensions of classroom activity: (1) content; (2) cognitive demand; (3) equitable access to content; (4) agency, authority and identity; and (5) uses of assessment.
- The Content dimension is defined as: “The
“Expect the best, plan for the worst, and prepare to be surprised.” Denis Waitley
While there is nothing wrong with occasional surprises, few people like to be caught unaware. Participants in a training program are essentially at the mercy of the trainer and, as a result, can feel especially vulnerable. It is a courtesy, a measure of respect and a wise move for a trainer to give the participants advance warning about the training format, content, learning activities and time frame.
Here are four areas in which trainers can put foreshadowing to good use.
1. Format Foreshadowing
Participants appreciate knowing what to expect during a training program. It is beneficial for both the participants and the trainer when the participants … Read the rest