Tip #174: Involving the Senses: Model #4
The fourth model incorporates and systematizes all three previous models. This is the UCLA Mastery Teaching Model developed by Dr. Madeline Hunter at the University of California- Los Angeles in 1967.
According to Dr. Hunter, there are eight elements that should be considered in the design of an effective lesson. These elements constitute building blocks that, if placed in the appropriate sequence for the content to be taught, can ensure that the learners have the basic knowledge they need so that they can be successful.
The elements can be combined: for example, checking for comprehension and guided/monitored practice. They can be placed in a different order: for example, letting the learners identify what the objective is later in the lesson rather than telling them right away. They can also be eliminated if they are not relevant to the learning process.
- Objective: identify the learning objectives so that the learners know what to expect in the training module.
- Anticipatory Set: ask a question or use a brief activity that requires the learners to focus on the learning objective.
- Input: present the content to be learned, or draw it from the learners, possibly through their response to the anticipatory set.
- Model: provide an example of the content, possibly through an analogy to explain the essence of what is to be taught.
- Check for Comprehension: ask or respond to questions.
- Guided/Monitored Practice: walk the learners through another example so that they can participate in applying the content.
- Independent Practice: have the learners participate in an exercise that requires them to apply the content in another example without the instructor’s assistance.
- Closure: end the lesson to close down thinking.
The purpose of Elements #1 (Objective) and #2 (Anticipatory Set) is to prime the learners for learning by drawing on their memory of related content and thereby engaging the Limbic System.
Elements #3 (Input) and #4 (Model) relate to Bloom’s Knowledge level. Note that Input can be attained through active learner participation and Model builds on memory in the Limbic System.
Element #5 (Check for Comprehension) relates to Bloom’s Comprehension level and requires the learners to say something, increasing retention to 70%.
Elements #6 (Guided/Monitored Practice) and #7 (Independent Practice) relate to Bloom’s Application level, or beyond to the levels of Analysis, Synthesis, and/or Evaluation. They also require the learners to do something with what they have learned, which increases the probability of retention to 90%.
All four models reinforce the importance of engaging as many senses as possible by actively involving learners in the learning process to create memory. This effectively increases the probability of learning, retention, and application.