For this week’s Tip, I draw from “The Cognitive Load of PowerPoint: Q&A with Richard E. Mayer,” by Cliff Atkinson.
Richard Mayer refers to his book: Multimedia Learning, in which he describes the following six research-based principles for the design of multimedia instruction:
1. Multimedia principle: people learn better from words and pictures than from words alone.
2. Coherence principle: people learn better when extraneous material is excluded.
3. Contiguity principle: people learn better when corresponding words and pictures are presented at the same time or next to each other on the screen.
4. Modality principle: people learn better from animation with spoken text rather than animation with printed text.
5. Signaling principle: people … Read the rest
According to Cognitive Load Theory and the Role of Learner Experience: An Abbreviated Review for Educational Practitioners (2008), by Anthony R. Artino, Jr., there are six cognitive load theory effects that reduce extraneous cognitive load. The first three that we discussed last week relate to problem solving: (1) goal-free effect, (2) worked example effect, and (3) completion problem effect.
The remaining three are as follows:
4. Split Attention Effect means to replace multiple sources of information (i.e., separate pictures and text) with a single, integrated source of information. This reduces extraneous load because there is no need to mentally integrate the information sources.
5. Modality Effect means to replace a written explanatory text and another source of visual information … Read the rest
I had originally thought that I could simply tell you what the cognitive load theory effects are. However, when I looked at them more closely, I realized that I needed more information to even begin to understand them. The following is intended to provide some contextual explanation for the three cognitive load theory effects identified at the end of this week’s Tip.
According to Fred Paas, Alexander Renkl and John Sweller in “Cognitive Load Theory and Instructional Design: Recent Developments’ , the manner in which information is presented to learners and the learning activities required of learners can impose a cognitive load. When that load is unnecessary and interferes with schema acquisition and automation, it is referred to as … Read the rest
In early December, Janis Taylor sent me this intriguing note:
I forget how I came across ‘cognitive load theory’ but I find it fascinating. I wonder if you have any good resources you could suggest or insights on the topic. I know when I’m learning something new I reach the point where I say, “Don’t tell me anything else, I need to absorb this first.” And I’ve observed the same with my learners when we try to introduce too many new concepts at the same time.
Maybe the subject of a future ‘tip’?
Quite honestly, I had never even heard of cognitive load theory before. So, I started to collect as much information as I could about the topic. When … Read the rest